The older the tree, better the oil reserve and stronger the aroma. These often hold an important place within the societies of its naturalised distribution range. Last updated on Jul 20, 2020. Gas chromatography "fingerprinting" of sandalwood oil has successfully analyzed the complex components.10, Sandalwood is a fragrant wood from which an oil is derived for use in foods and cosmetics. The height of the evergreen tree is between 4 and 9 metres. The State grants specific permission to officials who then can cut down the tree and sell its wood. With the exception of certain products that are generally recognized as safe in normal quantities, including use of folic acid and prenatal vitamins during pregnancy, this product has not been sufficiently studied to determine whether it is safe to use during pregnancy or nursing or by persons younger than 2 years of age. [5][6] The main distribution is in the drier tropical regions of India and the Indonesian islands of Timor and Sumba. To preserve this vulnerable resource from over-exploitation, legislation protects the species, and cultivation is researched and developed. Sandalwood oil has a warm, woody odor and is commonly used as a fragrance in incense, cosmetics, perfumes, and soaps.1 It also is used as a flavoring for foods and beverages. This is most common in Mysore city and surroundings. Research reveals no clinical data regarding the use of sandalwood oil for its antibacterial effects. Santalum album is considered in Indian to be a practical agroforestry species. Comes up naturally and protected tree. The oil should not be ingested internally in its natural state.1, 25, Sandalwood oil can cause dermatitis in sensitive persons, although it is generally considered to be nonirritating to human skin.2, 11, 26 A case report described a 65-year-old man with a scaly, hyperpigmented plaque on his forehead and fissuring of his fingers (markedly on the thumb and index finger). You should talk with your health care provider for complete information about the risks and benefits of using this product. The specific epithet freycinetianum is named in honor of Captain Loius de Freycinet (1779-1840), commander of the French exploration on board of which was Charles Gaudichaud-Beaupre, the first Western botanist to come to the Hawaiian Islands. Research reveals no clinical data regarding the use of sandalwood oil for the treatment of herpes infections. Santalum album. Some isolates of Santalum album were found to be active against Helicobacter pylori.15 S. album was also found to inhibit Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with the aqueous leaf extract showing a higher inhibition zone than with the stem extract.6, Beta-santalol was found to exert antiviral activity against influenza A/HK (H3N2), with a suggested mechanism of inhibition in late viral RNA synthesis.16. Select one or more newsletters to continue. Evergreen trees, to 10 m high, bark surface dark grey to nearly black, rough with short vertical cracks. In the southern Indian states of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh,[18] and Tamil Nadu all trees of greater than a specified girth were the property of the state until 2001/2. Santalum L. – sandalwood. Sandalwood oil has generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status as a flavoring agent in food by the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers' Association, and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) also recognizes sandalwood oil as a natural flavoring. Stress 11. It is yellow-brown in color, hard with an oily texture and due to its durability, is the perfect material for carving. The high value of sandalwood has led to attempts at cultivation, this has increased the distribution range of the plant. Santalum L. – sandalwood. This material is provided for educational purposes only and is not intended for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. The specific epithet ellipticum is from the Latin ellipticus, oblong with rounded ends, in reference the shape of the leaves of this species. It has use as wood and oil in religious practices. Medically reviewed by Drugs.com. Santalum album and over 1000 other quality seeds for sale. sandalwood tree scientific name: Santalum album In Indian tradition, Sandalwood trees are a special place and it used from cradle to cremation. Indian sandalwood. However, beta-santalol was found to decrease acetic acid-induced writhing more effectively than alpha-santalol.21, Though not statistically significant, leg and foot massage with sandalwood oil reduced anxiety in patients.22 Topical administration of sandalwood oil produced "harmonizing" effects (ie, a reduction in the level of autonomic nervous system arousal but no behavioral level deactivation) in healthy volunteers, whereas alpha-santalol had relaxing/sedative effects.23 Inhalational sandalwood essential oil and alpha-santalol affected various physiological parameters and self-ratings of arousal in humans.24, For the treatment of urological problems, a dose of 1 to 1.5 g daily is recommended for no more than 6 weeks. Stretch MarksSource: Julia Lawless, The Encyclopedia of Essential Oils (Updated Edition) (London: Harper Thorsons, 2014), 179-180. When the tree is still young the flowers are white and with age they turn red or orange. Have you heard of the Santalum album? The effect was dose dependent and the oil was not virucidal.12 Another in vitro study found sandalwood oil to exert inhibitory activity against HSV-2 (IC50 of 0.0015%).13, Sandalwood oil (along with the essential oils thyme, and hyssop) was found to exert virucidal activity against acyclovir-sensitive and resistant strains of HSV-1. Additionally, different in vitro and in vivo parts of the plant have been shown to possess antimicrobial[23] and antioxidant[23] properties, shikimic acid,[24] etc. The heartwood is pale green to white as the common name indicates. White sandalwood is LIKELY SAFE when taken by mouth in food amounts. It has a lot of value as the wood of Sandalwood is often an essential trade item for all countries it is cultivated in. Bronchitis 2. Drugs.com provides accurate and independent information on more than 24,000 prescription drugs, over-the-counter medicines and natural products. Intraperitoneal administration of alpha- and beta-santalols in mice increased hexobarbital-induced sleeping time. The entire plant is removed rather than cut to the base, as in coppiced species. Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances. Last updated on Jul 20, 2020. The tree is variable in habit, usually upright to sprawling, and may intertwine with other species. In India, the essential oil, emulsion, or paste of sandalwood is used in the treatment of inflammatory and eruptive skin diseases.5 The oil has been used in Ayurvedic medicinal system as a demulcent, diuretic, and mild stimulant.1 The leaves and bark of Santalum have been used by early Hawaiians to treat dandruff, lice, dermatitis, and sexually transmitted diseases.6 Sandalwood oil has also demonstrated repellency against the crop pest, Tetranychus urticae (two-spotted spider mite), with santalol suggested as the effective component.7, The essential oil of sandalwood is obtained from the heartwood of the tree.8 The light yellow, volatile oil contains about 90% santalols with 35% to 49% being alpha-santalol, 14% to 33% beta-santalol, 0% to 5% alpha-trans-bergamotol, and 1% to 7% epi-beta-santalol.9 The santalols are responsible for the pleasant odor of sandalwood, although 2-furfuryl pyrrole may also contribute an effect.2, The seeds yield about 50% of a viscid, dark red, fixed oil containing stearolic acid and santalbic acid. We comply with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information -. Other species in the genus Santalum, such as the Australian S. spicatum, are also referred to as true sandalwoods, to distinguish them from trees with similar-smelling wood or oil. The plant is long-lived, but harvest is only viable after many years. The generic name Santalum is derived from santalon, the Greek name for sandalwood. The trunk of the tree starts to develop its fragrance after about 10 years of growth. The long maturation period and difficulty in cultivation have restricted extensive planting. The Indian government has banned the export of the species to reduce the threat by over-harvesting. Laryngitis 6. There have been reports of kidney damage with prolonged use.. For the treatment of urological problems, a dose of 1 to 1.5 g daily is recommended for no more than 6 weeks. The tree starts to flower after 7 years. Family. Information regarding safety and efficacy in pregnancy and lactation is lacking. The leaves are thin, opposite and ovate to lanceolate in shape. SANDALWOOD essential oil, scientifically known as Santalum Album, The essential oil of sandalwood is extracted through steam distillation of wood from matured sandalwood trees which are 40-80 years old, although 80 years is preferred. They may live to one hundred years of age. Species. Indian sandalwood still commands high prices for its essential oil owing to its high alpha santalol content, but due to lack of sizable trees it is no longer used for fine woodworking as before. Research reveals no clinical data regarding the use of sandalwood oil for cardio-metabolic risk. Sandalwood oil should be dosed in a resistant coating that protects against gastric secretions. Subscribe to Drugs.com newsletters for the latest medication news, new drug approvals, alerts and updates. Subordinate Taxa. It may propagate itself through wood suckering during its early development, establishing small stands. This product may be unsafe when used before surgery or other medical procedures. Glabrous surface is shiny and bright green, with a glaucous pale reverse. Treatment (5% in acetone, w/v) on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-(DMBA)-initiated and 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate(TPA)-promoted skin papillomas and TPA-induced ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity in CD1 mice significantly decreased papilloma incidence by 67% and TPA-induced ODC activity by 70%.5, Daily oral feedings of sandalwood oil to adult male Swiss albino mice for 10 and 20 days led to a dose-dependent increase on glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and acid soluble sulfhydryl (SH) levels. 22 November 2019. It is important to fully inform your doctor about the herbal, vitamins, mineral or any other supplements you are taking before any kind of surgery or medical procedure. SYNONYMS Santalum album L. COMMON NAMES Indian Sandalwood, East Indian Sandalwood EXTRACTION METHOD Steam Distilled Essential Oil ORIGIN India NOTE CLASSIFICATION Base Note, Excellent Fixative The ecstatic aroma of this plant, which is not just amazing but also long-lasting, makes it so popular across the world. Santalum album : Source: Santalales of North America Update, database (version 2011) Acquired: 2011 : Notes: Updated for ITIS by the Flora of North America Expertise Network, in connection with an update for USDA PLANTS (2007-2010) Reference for: Santalum album : Source: The PLANTS Database, database (version 4.0.4) Acquired: 1996 : Notes: Sandalwood oil has been widely used in folk medicine for treatment of common colds, bronchitis, skin disorders, heart ailments, general weakness, fever, infection of the urinary tract, inflammation of the mouth and pharynx, liver and gallbladder complaints and other maladies. These often hold an important place within the societies of its naturalised distribution range. Botanical Name: Santalum album Product CoExtract: SDW/0181 HSN CoExtract: 3301.29.90 CAS Number: 8006-87-9; 84787-70-2 INCI Name: Santalum Album (Sandalwood) Co2 Oil. S. album has been the primary source of sandalwood and the derived oil. If this tree comes up in any house one has to inform the Forest department and one cannot cut this tree. Data sources include IBM Watson Micromedex (updated 7 Dec 2020), Cerner Multum™ (updated 4 Jan 2021), ASHP (updated 3 Dec 2020) and others. The sapwood is white or yellow in color and is used to make turnery items. Datasheet Type (s) Host Plant. Bark is tight, dark brown, reddish, dark grey or Scars 9. The dermal toxicity of sandalwood oil and alpha-santalol in rabbits was reported as more than 5 g/kg.1, Sandalwood oil was found to be irritating in mouse and rabbit skin test models. Santalum ellipticum, known as Hawaiian sandalwood ( lliahi aloe ), is also used and deemed of high quality. Alpha-santalol is believed to exert its chemopreventive effects, particularly against skin cancer, through the induction of apoptosis and tumor suppressor protein. It is usually an evergreen tree with a long life. Indian sandalwood has a high santalol content, at about 90%, compared with the other main source of the oil, Santalum spicatum (Australian sandalwood), at around 39%, and India used to dominate production of sandalwood oil world-wide, but the industry has been in decline in the 21st century.[17]. Native Introduced Native and Introduced. S. album occurs from coastal dry forests up to 700 metres (2,300 ft) elevation. sandalwood. Santalaceae – Sandalwood family. The tree is variable in habit, usually upright to sprawling, and may intertwine with other species. Sheffields Seed Company offers 1000s of quality seed for sale varieties with fast worldwide shipping Phone 315 4971058 Fax 315 4971059 Email seedsheffields.com It is native to southern India and Southeast Asia. The ISO Standard for the accepted characteristics of this essential oil is ISO 3518:2002. [7] There is still debate as to whether S. album is native to Australia and India or was introduced by fishermen, traders or birds from southeast Asia centuries ago.[8][9]. In addition, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were reduced, while high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels increased.20. It does NOT include all information about the possible uses, directions, warnings, precautions, interactions, adverse effects, or risks that may apply to this product. Certain cultures place great significance on its fragrant and medicinal qualities. This information relates to an herbal, vitamin, mineral or other dietary supplement. Sandalwood is an evergreen tree native to India and Indonesia and grows to 8 to 12 m in height and 2.5 A superior effect was noted with a 5% application of alpha-santalol as opposed to 1.25% and 2.5%. The santalols and related compounds have been identified in the blood of mice that inhaled sandalwood fumes under experimental conditions, indicating that systemic absorption of these compounds can occur.29. Santalum album. The species was the first to be known as sandalwood. This product may adversely interact with certain health and medical conditions, other prescription and over-the-counter drugs, foods, or other dietary supplements. Summary. An individual will form a non-obligate relationship with a number of other plants. The wood has been valued in carving because of its dense character.2, 3, 4, In traditional medicine, sandalwood oil has been used as an antiseptic and astringent, and for the treatment of headache, stomachache, and urogenital disorders. It is yellow-brown in color, hard with an oily texture and due to its durability, is the perfect material for carving. Depression 4. 1. Santalum spicatum Australian sandalwood is also used in aromatherapy as and ecological alternative to the endangered Santalum album. Kautilya’s Arthashastra (320 B.C.) Oily Skin 8. [15] HPTLC and GC,[citation needed] GC-MS based methods are used for qualitative and quantitative analyses of the volatile [16] essential oil constituents. This product has not been reviewed by the FDA to determine whether it is safe or effective and is not subject to the quality standards and safety information collection standards that are applicable to most prescription drugs. This information does not endorse this product as safe, effective, or approved for treating any patient or health condition. Genus. Medically reviewed by Drugs.com. Sandalwood is now cultivated in India, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Northern Australia. The central part of the tree, the heartwood, is the only part of the tree that is used for its fragrance. Learn how and when to remove this template message, "Sandal (Santalum album L.) conservation in southern India: A review of policies and their impacts", "The origin and diffusion of betel chewing: a synthesis of evidence from South Asia, Southeast Asia and beyond", http://www.newcrops.uq.edu.au/newslett/ncnl2-54.htm, Australian Arid Lands Botanic Garden - Plants: Sandalwood, Santalum spicatum, "Time to lift restrictions on planting sandalwood? [20], The harvesting of sandalwood is preferred to be of trees that are advanced in age. In a study of streptozocin-induced diabetic rats, S. album petroleum ether fraction 10 mcg/kg given twice daily for 60 days was associated with a reduction in blood glucose, hemoglobin A1c. Preferred Scientific Name. ", "Indian sandalwood production set to lose home ground edge", "Tropical Forestry Services becomes Quintis as the company shifts focus", "Comparative phytochemical analysis and antibacterial efficacy of, "Shikimic Acid (Tamiflu Precursor) Production in Suspension Cultures of East Indian Sandalwood (, https://web.archive.org/web/20110616193403/http://www.toddcaldecott.com/index.php/herbs/learning-herbs/379-chandana, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Santalum_album&oldid=997931764, Articles needing additional references from February 2013, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2021, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2020, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Homepage of Professor Satyahari Dey, at Department of Biotechnology, IIT Kharagpur, India: Working on Indian Sandalwood since 20 years, This page was last edited on 2 January 2021, at 23:14. Oh! Another common tree in Mysore city is Magnolia champaka.. Infact many varieties are seen if you walk on the road during the flowering season. Hawaiian Names: Lāʻau ʻala literally means "sweet wood" or "fragrant wood." Annual production fell from a high of 4,000 tonnes in the early 1970s, to fewer than 300 tonnes in 2011. Available for Android and iOS devices. Additionally, alpha-santalol in 2.5% and 5% concentrations as pretreatment reduced ultraviolet B UVB-initiated skin tumor development.8, Alpha-santalol activated caspase-3 activity, causing apoptosis in androgen-dependant and -independent human prostate cancer cells. Santalum album Taxonomy ID: 35974 (for references in articles please use NCBI:txid35974) current name. Santalum album L. Genbank common name: white sandalwood NCBI BLAST name: eudicots Rank: species Genetic code: Translation table 1 (Standard) Mitochondrial genetic code: Translation table 1 … Sandalwood oil has been reported to have diuretic and urinary antiseptic properties, but clinical trial data are lacking. Santalum ovatum R.Br. [17] Cutting of trees, even on private property, were regulated by the Forest Department[18] After that they were allowed to be sold to private growers, but the product can only be sold to the state forest department. Although the mechanism of action is unclear, the enhancement of GST activity and acid-soluble SH levels may suggest a possible chemoprophylactic action on carcinogenesis.17, Similarly, alpha-santalol was found in a dose-response study to decrease DMBA-TPA–induced skin tumor incidence and multiplicity, ODC activity, and DNA synthesis in CD-1 mice. 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